The ability to perceive information without
the benefit of the
senses. Such perceptions, collectively called PSI phenomena, are
grouped in four main categories: telepathy, or mind-to-mind
communication; clairvoyance, or the awareness of remote objects,
persons, or events; precognition, or the knowledge of events lying in
the future; and retrocognition, or the knowledge of past events in
the absence of access to information about those events.
Scientific theory does not recognize modes
of perception other than
those mediated by the sense organs and other body systems, so ESP by
definition lies outside the realm of scientific explanation. Claims
for the occurrence of ESP therefore remain controversial, although
the converse condition also holds, that the existence of ESP cannot
positively be disproved.
In the twentieth century, attempts at controlled
study of ESP
phenomena have been undertaken by various persons and groups (see
parapsychology). Such researchers often claim that ESP experiences
can be induced by hypnosis, chemicals, or other artificial means so
that they can be measured precisely under laboratory conditions. The
scientific community as a whole does not accept ESP research reports,
because it does not find them verifiable or reproducible.
Parapsychologists and others, however, maintain that ESP exists and
should be explored even should it remain beyond the bounds of
The number of ESP experiments in modern
times is enormous. Relatively
few have been conducted under proper supervision, and it must be
admitted that some have been found to have involved cheating. For
example, one of the first properly recorded tests was arranged in
1882, soon after the formation of the British Society for Psychical
Research, when its first President, Henry Sidgwick, announced that
the five young daughters of an English clergyman had convinced
independent investigators of their telepathic abilities. However, six
years later they were caught using a code to communicate with each
A more successful experiment in telepathy
was conducted in 1937 by
Harold Sherman and Sir Hubert Wilkins, when Wilkins, an Australian
explorer, was hired by the Russians to find a pilot who had
disappeared in the Arctic. Sherman suggested to Wilkins that during
his trip they should try to communicate by telepathy. Three days each
week Wilkins sat down and reviewed the day's events; in New York,
Sherman sat in near-darkness and wrote down anything that came into
his head. Among other incidents, Sherman learned of a fire at a place
called Aklavik before the news came by radio.
There have been some spectacular results
under strictly controlled
conditions. One of the most famous was reported in 1937 by Professor
Riess of Hunter College, New York. On a number of evenings, Riess
turned face-upward a series of cards from a newly shuffled pack on
his desk, and his subject wrote down the cards that came to mind. Two
packs of 25 cards were used each day. Gradually, the subject became
more accurate; and on the last nine days of the experiment her score
of successes was 17, 18, 19, 20, 20, 19, 20, 21 and 21 — so far above
chance as to be astonishing, and by far the highest score ever
recorded in a series of ESP experiments.
Related audio and videos.
A 1-900 Psychic Speaks.
Are You Psychic? Unlocking the Power Within.
Complete Idiot's Guide to Being Psychic.
Esp (Mysteries of Science).
Esp: Are You a Mind-Reader (Element of the Extraordinary).
Everyone's Guide for Using Psychic Ability.
Extrasensory Deception: Esp, Psychics, Shirley MacLaine, Ghosts, Ufos.
Guidelines for Testing Psychic Claimants.
How to Develop Your Esp Power: The First Published Encounter With
Seven Steps to Developing Your Intuitive Powers: An Interactive
I got this information from my Wicca and Witchcraft Group :)"Morgaine le Fey"